Your child needs a lumbar puncture, also known as a spinal tap, because it is not always possible to tell what is wrong with your child, without tests such as this. The lumbar puncture is done to make sure that your child does not have an infection of the lining or the fluid around their brain.
A micturating cysto-urethrogram (MCU) is an x-ray test of the bladder as it fills and empties. Your baby or child is having an MCU to find out if they have problems with their bladder or urethra or a condition called urinary reflux.
A renal biopsy is a test that is done to look directly at your child's kidney. A very small piece of kidney tissue is taken out. This is done by doctors from the x-ray department using an ultrasound machine that helps them guide the needle.
Ultrasound is very useful for looking at soft tissue parts of the body such as the kidneys and bladder. Your baby or child may have a renal ultrasound to find out if there are any blockages in the urinary tract; check if their kidneys are normal in shape, size and position and look at the blood vessels in the kidneys.
The doctor wants your child to have a sweat test to find out if they have a condition called cystic fibrosis. This is an inherited, genetic disease that causes people to have a high amount of salt in their sweat. A small amount of sweat is needed from your child’s skin to measure the amount of salt. In cystic fibrosis these levels are high.
An explanation of some of the tests used to make a cancer diagnosis: full blood count; bone marrow aspiration; lumbar puncture; x-rays and scans; biopsy and tests to find out how well organs are working.
Testing a sample of your child’s urine (wee) is the only way to know for sure if they have a UTI (urinary tract infection). For children who are out of nappies and who can wee when asked, a mid-stream urine sample is usually collected. In younger children who are in nappies and cannot wee on request, a mid-stream urine sample is usually not possible. Several other methods can be used.