All Conditions

A full listing of all conditions and problems covered on this website - from common problems to rare conditions. 

A sick child asleep on a hospital bed

Asthma is a condition that leads to narrowing of the airways of the lungs. Symptoms include wheeze, cough and difficulty breathing.

Acne is a common skin condition that usually starts in the teenage years. It usually clears up after several years, but for some people, it can last a lot longer.

Allergies happen when your child's immune system mistakenly treats normally harmless substances as 'harmful'. The substances that trigger allergies are called allergens. The symptoms of an allergy vary according to what a child or young person is allergic to. 

Anxiety is a common and natural feeling that everybody experiences. If anxiety is significantly impacting your child's everyday life, then it is important to get help for them. 

If a premature baby has apnoea of prematurity, it means they stop breathing at times for 15 to 20 seconds. 

Appendicitis can be serious. Go first to your family doctor or after-hours medical centre if you think your child has symptoms of appendicitis. If you cannot get an appointment straight away, go to your hospital's accident and emergency department.

All young children have a limited attention span and sometimes do things without thinking. If these are severe enough to interfere with their learning and social relationships, in more than one setting, they can be a sign of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Autism-takiwātanga is a difference in development that affects communication, social skills and behaviour. If your child does have autism-takiwātanga, there are services available to support your child, you and your whānau. 

Biliary atresia is a rare but serious liver disorder that affects newborn pēpi (babies).

A boil is a tender red lump on the skin which is caused by an infection of the hair root or sweat pore. Boils are not usually a serious problem. There is a small chance of your child becoming sicker if the infection spreads - if this happens you should take your child to your family doctor.

A breath-holding spell may happen after a child has an upset or sudden startle, such as a minor bump or a fright.

Bronchiectasis is a chest disease. The airways in the lungs have become damaged and scarred. Once a person has bronchiectasis, they usually have it for life. Good treatment stops it getting worse and in very young children, can reverse some of the disease.

Bronchiolitis is a chest condition that causes breathing problems in pēpi (babies). It's caused by a virus. Bronchiolitis is very easy to catch so wash your hands before and after handling your baby.

Any area of skin can become infected with cellulitis if the skin is broken in some way. Cellulitis is a serious infection that needs treatment with antibiotics.

Cerebral palsy (CP) affects children in different ways. If you have found out your child has CP, your journey might be different from what you had planned. There are services to help your child with CP to reach their potential. Each child and family's journey is different. 

Chickenpox is a common childhood illness caused by a virus. Tamariki (children) with chickenpox need to stay home from school and daycare. Tamariki can have free chickenpox immunisation at 15 months of age.

There are many childhood cancer topics and pages available on this website. Check out some quick links to the main sections.

Chondromalacia patella, often referred to as "runner's knee," causes pain in the knee. It is common in tamariki (children) and rangatahi (young people).

Coeliac disease is common and can run in families. If your child has coeliac disease, they may have some symptoms or none at all. They'll need to follow a strict gluten-free diet.

Colds are common in tamariki (children). They are caused by viruses that spread easily through coughing and sneezing. Learn more about common cold symptoms and how to manage them.

Conjunctivitis, or pink eye, is a very common condition in children. It causes red, irritated and sticky eyes. A viral or bacterial infection or allergic reaction are the most common causes of conjunctivitis.

Constipation is when your child has hard poo and doesn't poo for 3 or more days. It's a common problem in childhood.

COVID-19 is a disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. It can affect your lungs, airways and other organs. If you or your child have cold, flu or COVID-19 symptoms, stay at home. Call your GP or Healthline on 0800 358 5453 for advice. 

Coughing is common in children, especially when they are preschool age. A cough that lasts longer than 4 weeks is not normal and may be a sign of more serious disease.

Croup is a viral illness in young tamariki (children) which causes narrowing of the upper airways. Croup is often a mild illness but can quickly become serious, so don't hesitate to get medical help.

How to care for cuts, scratches and grazes. If your child has a wound that won't stop bleeding, see your doctor or go to the emergency department.

Daytime wetting happens in about 3% of healthy tamariki (children). All tamariki with daytime wetting should see a doctor who has experience with children's problems.

Dengue fever is a viral illness spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. The best way to avoid dengue fever is to prevent mosquito bites. 

Depression is a serious illness that can make it hard to do everyday activities. It is important to get help if you are concerned about your child's depression. Depression can be treated effectively.

A series of 6 video clips featuring Melanie Mora and her family. Mel is mother to 3 boys - Jamie, Ryan and Ethan. She talks about her experience of receiving a post-birth diagnosis of Down syndrome for her middle son Ryan.

Meet Mel and her family in a series of video clips. Mel is mother to 3 boys - Jamie, Ryan and Ethan. Her middle son Ryan was diagnosed after birth with Down syndrome.

Ear pain and concerns about hearing are one of the most common reasons parents take their young children to the doctor.

Eczema is a dry skin condition. You can easily manage most eczema at home but it needs care every day. There is no cure for eczema - just good management.

Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EO) is a rare condition that causes tamariki and rangatahi to have difficulties with their swallowing tube (oesophagus). The treatment for eosinophilic oesophagitis is medicines and/or changes to your child's diet.

Epilepsy is the name of a group of disorders. Tamariki (children) with epilepsy have epileptic seizures. But not all children with epileptic seizures have epilepsy.

Febrile seizures are a common childhood problem. They happen in tamariki (children) between the ages of 6 months and 6 years.

Fevers are common in children. Fever by itself does not tell you whether your child is seriously sick. Even an ordinary cold can cause a high fever.

The flu (influenza) is not the same as having a bad cold. The flu can be a serious infection. Flu immunisation every year gives the best protection.

The foreskin is the loose skin that covers and protects the end of the penis. The foreskin and penis of a baby or child need no special care. A child's foreskin should never be pulled back (retracted) by force.

There are different types of fractures. Your child's treatment will depend on the type of fracture, and where it is.

Gastroenteritis (gastro) is a bowel infection, usually caused by a virus. It causes runny, watery poo and sometimes vomiting. Children with gastroenteritis need to drink plenty of fluids.

If your child has glue ear, it means there is fluid in the space behind the ear drum. The main symptom of glue ear is hearing difficulty. Hearing loss for long periods during the early years may affect speech and language development.

If your child has hand, foot and mouth disease, keep them at home if they are unwell or have blisters. Make sure your child doesn't go to childcare, school or kura until all the blisters have dried.

Head lice are small insects that live on the human scalp. They are common and cause concern and frustration for parents, tamariki (children) and rangatahi (young people). Dimethicone lotion is a very effective treatment that a health professional can prescribe. Check out our step by step guide.

If your child has speech or language difficulties or has trouble following instructions, they may have a hearing problem. Other signs include if they are easily distracted or have difficulty paying attention in class.

If your child has Henoch-Schonlein purpura, you may first notice a rash. This is caused by inflammation and swelling of the small blood vessels in the skin. 

Infant botulism is a very rare condition. Honey is a known source of the bacteria spores that cause botulism so babies should be at least 12 months old before they eat honey.

At-a-glance information on a range of childhood infections - how they are spread, early symptoms, time between exposure and sickness, exclusion from school and day care.

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are inflammatory bowel diseases. In children, they can cause tummy pain, diarrhoea, bleeding from their bottom, or weight loss. If you are worried about these, take your child to your family doctor.

An insect bite is usually a red itchy bump. There may be a blister in the middle. Sometimes insect bites are painful (especially spider bites) as well as itchy.

Irritable bowel syndrome is a digestive system problem. Symptoms include cramping pain, bloating, diarrhoea and constipation. There are changes you can make which can improve your child's symptoms.

Intussusception is a rare condition where one part of the bowel slides inside the next (like a telescope) and causes a blockage.

Irritable hip is one of the most common causes of limping in tamariki (children). The medical name for irritable hip is transient synovitis. Irritable hip is not serious and your child will get better with rest and time. 

Mild jaundice is common in pēpi (babies), but baby jaundice is not always normal. If your baby has yellow skin or eyes and pale poo or dark (yellow or brown) wee, your baby needs a special blood test. See a health professional or midwife as soon as possible.

Kawasaki disease is a rare but serious illness affecting young tamariki (children). The most striking feature is a high fever that comes and goes for at least 5 days. If you think your child might have Kawasaki disease, you should take them to your doctor straightaway.

Kidney infections can occur in tamariki (children) when a bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) spreads from the bladder to the kidneys.

Knee pain is common in tamariki (children) and rangatahi (young people). It can happen for many different reasons. Learn more about the different causes of knee pain in tamariki and rangatahi.

Labial fusion is common in children. In most cases, it resolves as your child gets older and requires no treatment. 

Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon skin condition. It affects males and females of all ages but mainly affects tamariki before puberty.

Make sure your kids are immunised against measles. It takes around 2 weeks for the immunisation to protect you.

Babies and children with meningococcal disease can get sick very quickly. Call 111 in New Zealand if your child seems very ill, especially if there is a rash.

Mumps is a viral illness which can be serious. Immunisation is the only way to prevent it.

In the 5 hours between waking at 3am with a headache and 8am when her family had gathered at Palmerston North Hospital, 18-year-old Letitia (Tesh) Gallagher's body had battled meningococcal C disease and lost.

A diagnosis of mitochondrial disease can, understandably, be devastating. There will be many questions and emotions. This page aims to provide information and support for New Zealanders affected by 'mito', along with their family and friends.

Nightmares are bad dreams that are usually related to worries your child may have. Night terrors happen when children are only partly aroused or woken from deep sleep. They can be very frightening for parents and carers.

Osgood-Schlatter disease is a common condition that causes knee pain. It is common in active tamariki (children) and rangatahi (young people). Osgood-Schlatter disease resolves on its own for most tamariki and rangatahi once their bones have stopped growing.

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. It causes cough, fever and problems with breathing. Most children make a complete recovery from pneumonia.

If you think your child has been poisoned, call the New Zealand National Poisons Centre immediately on 0800 POISON (0800 764 766). Do not try to make your child vomit or give food or liquid until you have been given advice.

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is a kidney disease. The main symptoms are blood in your child's wee and swollen ankles or puffy eyes.

Pyloric stenosis is a condition where milk cannot get out of the stomach because the 'exit' is extremely narrow.

Helpful resources and services if your child has a genetic or rare disorder.

Reflux is when your baby's stomach contents are released back up towards their mouth. It's very common and doesn't usually hurt pēpi.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a very common virus in the winter and spring months in Aotearoa New Zealand. It is one of many viruses that cause infections of the respiratory tract - the parts of the body related to breathing. 

Rheumatic fever is a serious illness. It often starts with a sore throat. Without treatment, some sore throats can cause rheumatic fever which can lead to heart damage. 

Watch animated videos to find out about sore throats, rheumatic fever and the importance of keeping a healthy heart.

Ringworm is a flat, ring-shaped infection. See your doctor if the ringworm is on your child's scalp as this needs treatment with medicine.

Scabies is caused by a tiny mite which digs under the skin and lays eggs. Small blisters grow on the skin above each egg and the skin gets very itchy.

School sores (impetigo) are common in children. They are easily spread and need treatment. 

Snoring or noisy breathing during sleep may be a sign that your child is having difficulty breathing. The medical name for this is obstructive sleep apnoea.

Soiling is when your child does poo in their pants after the age when you would expect them to be toilet-trained. Soiling is usually caused by long-lasting constipation and an overloaded bowel.

Some parents worry that a sore red bottom may be caused by sexual abuse.  Although that is a possibility, it is not the usual reason and there are lots of other things that are much more likely causes of a sore red bottom.

Meet Tristan and Justin. The 11-year-old twins know first hand that a sore throat left untreated can lead to rheumatic fever.

An abnormally fast heart rhythm (tachycardia) can arise from the upper or lower chambers of the heart. Tachycardias that involve the upper chambers are called supraventricular tachycardias (SVT). Supraventricular tachycardias are usually not dangerous.

Tetanus is a life-threatening condition caused by bacteria in the soil. Tetanus usually develops after a 'dirty' wound but can develop after small or even unnoticed injuries. Only immunisation can prevent tetanus.

Threadworms are tiny worms that infect the digestive tract. They're common in children and spread easily. They commonly cause an itch around the bottom and genitals.

Tongue tie is a condition that involves a small piece of tissue connecting the tongue to the bottom of the mouth. This is called the frenulum. When a baby's frenulum is short or tight it can stop their tongue from moving properly. This is called a tongue tie. Tongue tie may cause a problem with breastfeeding for some pēpi (babies).

Typhoid fever is an infection that can make your child very ill. If your child has typhoid, you need to see a doctor urgently. Without immediate treatment, your child could have serious complications or even die.

Urinary reflux (vesico-ureteric reflux) is the abnormal flow of urine back up the ureters towards the kidneys when your child does a wee.

A urinary tract infection is an infection in the wee (urine). It is a common cause of fever in young children. 

Viral wheeze is an infection of the lungs which starts with a cough or cold. It's more common in children under the age of 3 years as their airways are smaller. Viral wheeze can also be called preschool wheeze, episodic wheeze, or viral-induced wheeze.

Vulval conditions are common in tamariki. They can cause symptoms such as itch and discomfort. Read to find out about some of the common conditions that can affect the vulva in tamariki. 

Vulvovaginitis causes itch and irritation around the vagina and vulva. It is common in tamariki.

Warts are common, harmless skin growths caused by a virus. Warts will disappear within 2 years in most tamariki (children).

Whooping cough can make pēpi very sick and some pēpi can die. Having whooping cough immunisation in pregnancy protects pēpi in their first weeks of life. Start immunising pēpi the day they turn 6 weeks old to keep protecting them.