Babies and children with meningococcal disease can get sick very quickly. Call 111 in New Zealand if your child seems very ill, especially if there is a rash.
Key points about meningococcal disease
- meningococcal disease is a bacterial infection - it causes severe illness and can cause death
- babies and children with meningococcal disease can get sick very quickly
- meningococcal disease can be difficult to diagnose in its early stages
- take your child to a doctor urgently if they appear very ill, especially if there is a rash
- take your child back to your doctor urgently if they get worse
- know about the early symptoms of meningococcal disease and teach teenagers about these too
- know where to seek help after hours and how to get there
- early treatment can save lives
What is meningococcal disease?
Meningococcal disease is an infection caused by a bacteria, and can lead to 2 very serious illnesses:
- meningitis (an infection of membranes that cover the brain)
- septicaemia (a serious infection in the blood)
Some children will have both meningitis and septicaemia, others will have one or the other.
There are several different types of meningococcal bacteria including A, B, C, Y and W.
How common is meningococcal disease?
Between 2013 and 2017, there were between 45 and 112 cases of meningococcal disease each year in New Zealand.
It's more common in winter and spring. The highest rates of meningococcal disease occur in children aged under 5 years and young people aged 15 to 19 years. But, people of any age can be affected.
How is meningococcal disease spread?
Meningococcal disease can easily spread from person to person.
The bacteria can spread through close contact such as:
- living in the same household
- coughing and sneezing
- kissing, sharing food and drink
Why do only some people exposed to meningococcal bacteria get sick?
Some people will carry meningococcal bacteria in their nose and throat without getting sick.
Scientists and health professionals don't yet know why some people who come into contact with meningococcal bacteria get sick and others don't.
Who is most at risk of catching meningococcal disease?
- meningococcal disease can affect anyone, but those under 20 (and particularly babies under one and children under 5) are at greatest risk
- teenagers and young adults who live in shared accommodation (like flats and university halls of residence) are also at increased risk
What are the signs and symptoms of meningococcal disease?
Symptoms may appear in any order and some may not appear at all.
In the early stages of meningococcal disease, symptoms may seem similar to those of the flu or any other viral infection. The disease can develop very quickly and is difficult to diagnose.
It's important to be aware of the symptoms so you can get medical help straightaway - whether it's day or night.
Meningococcal disease can be treated with antibiotics but early treatment is very important.
Know about the early symptoms of meningococcal disease and take action if you are concerned.
Get urgent medical help if your child has one or more of the symptoms below.
Symptoms in a baby or child who has meningococcal disease
- have a fever (may also have cool hands and feet, or shivering)
- be crying or unsettled
- refuse drinks or feeds
- be sleepy or floppy or harder to wake
- dislike bright lights
- have a stiff neck
- have a bulging fontanelle (the soft area on the top of a baby's head)
- have red or purple spots or bruises on the skin
Photos of a meningococcal rash (be aware only 1 in 3 children with meningococcal disease have a rash)
Symptoms in an older child or adult who has meningococcal disease
- have a fever or a headache
- have a stiff neck
- have joint pain and aching muscles
- be sleepy, confused, delirious or unconscious
- dislike bright lights
- have red or purple spots or bruises on the skin (see the photos above but be aware only 1 in 3 children and adults with meningococcal disease have a rash)
When should I seek help for my child's meningococcal disease?
Don't wait - take action.
If your child has one or more of the symptoms of meningococcal disease:
- act immediately
- ring a doctor, after hours medical centre or Healthline (0800 611 116) right away - whether it is night or day
- if it is an emergency, call 111 within New Zealand and ask for an ambulance (use the appropriate emergency number in other countries)
- say what the symptoms are
- insist on immediate action - don't be put off - a life may be at risk
- watch your child, even if they have already been checked by a doctor - ask your doctor what to look out for
- go straight back to a doctor if your child gets worse
- do not leave your child alone
What treatments are available for meningococcal disease?
Early treatment of meningococcal disease with antibiotics is very important because it can save lives and reduce the effects of the disease.
Preventing meningococcal disease in close contacts
Once the healthcare team diagnose meningococcal disease in someone, they give antibiotics to that person's close contacts. This treatment clears the organism from their throat and prevents the spread of meningococcal disease from person to person.
Immunisation for meningococcal disease
Several vaccines are available which protect against different groups of meningococcal disease - A, C, Y, W, and B.
MenB (Bexsero) vaccine
Menactra protects against meningococcal disease types A, C, Y and W.
Some at risk groups can have this free. This includes some young people aged 13 to 25 years in close-living situations.
Talk to your doctor about whether your child or young person can have Menactra.
Mark and Lisa's experience of meningococcal C disease in their daughter Letitia
You can watch a video of a family's experience of meningococcal C disease. In the 5 hours between waking at 3am with a headache and 8am when her family had gathered at Palmerston North Hospital, 18-year-old Letitia (Tesh) Gallagher's body had battled meningococcal C disease and lost.
Are there complications of meningococcal disease?
For every 100 people who get the disease, 5 to 10 will die. Another 20 are likely to be left with some degree of serious disability, such as brain damage, deafness, loss of limbs or damaged skin. Some are also left with learning or behavioural difficulties.
While New Zealand has had a high rate of meningococcal disease, it has had a low death rate compared to other countries. This is partly due to high awareness of the disease and the importance of seeking urgent medical attention, and to early treatment.
Between 2013 and 2017, there were between 2 and 9 deaths from meningococcal disease each year in New Zealand.
Ripu's own experience of surviving meningococcal disease
Ripu Bhatia was a 21-year-old university student living in Sydney when he had his arms and legs amputated after getting meningococcal disease. You can read Ripu's story at the Stuff website.
This page last reviewed 27 February 2023.
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